Friday, August 24, 2012

Poisonous Mushroom of Bulgaria

Bulgaria Post PLC issued the stamp series feature the poisonous mushrooms on July 29, 2011. The issue stamp are 4 single stamps and one miniature sheet depicted the poisonous mushroom  such as: Rhodophyllus sinuatus, Russula emetica, Omphalotus olearius Sing, Inocybe patouillardii.

Many people are interested in mushroom because they are edible. But everyone also knows that wild mushroom can be both delicious and deadly poisonous. Unfortunately, there is no simple way of saying what is edible and what is poisonous. Many poisonings occur when people are experimenting with odd species. There has also been some concern about the concentrations of metals such as arsenic, cadmium, copper and lead in wild mushroom.
Rhodophyllus sinuatus

Rhodophyllus sinuatus or Entoloma sinuatum  is a poisonous mushroom found across Europe and North America. Appearing in late summer and autumn, fruit bodies are found in deciduous woodlands on clay or chalky soils, or nearby parklands, sometimes in the form of fairy rings. Solid in shape, grow solitary or in group.

The ivory to light grey-brown cap is up to 20 cm across with a margin that is rolled inward. The sinuate gills are pale and often yellowish, becoming pink as the spores develop. The thick whitish stem has no ring.
Most members of the genus are saprotrophic, although this species has been recorded as forming an ectomycorrhizal relationship with willow (Salix)
Russula emetica

Russula emetica, is a basidiomycete mushroom of the genus Russula, one of many species with a predominantly red-coloured cap and white gills and stalk. It gets its common name from its inedibility, as it causes vomiting and diarrhea when consumed. It has an extremely peppery taste, which is said partly to disappear on cooking, along with its toxicity, though eating it is not recommended.

Russula emetica may be found in wet places in coniferous woodlands in Europe, North Africa, Asia and North America, and can be very common.

Russula emetica is inedible, though not as dangerous as once described in older mushroom guides. The symptoms are mainly gastrointestinal    in nature:    diarrhoea,   vomiting      and colicky abdominal cramps. The bitter taste does disappear on cooking and it is said to be edible, though not recommended.
Omphalotus olearius Sing
Omphalotus olearius, commonly known as the jack-o'-lantern mushroom, is an orange- to yellow-gill mushroom and poisonous .While not lethal, consuming this mushroom leads to very severe cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Omphalotus olearius’s fruiting body (its stem and cap) is an orange color. Its bioluminescence, a blue-green color, is only observable in low light conditions when the eye becomes dark-adapted.  This is due to an enzyme, called luciferase, acting upon a compound called luciferin, leading to the emission of light much as fireflies do when glowing.

The poisonous chemical compound illudin was isolated from Omphalotus illudens. Inside the cells of the body, it reacts with DNA and creates a type of DNA damage that blocks the transcription process.  This property was exploited by the company MGI Pharma to develop an illudin-derivative called Irofulven for use as an anti-cancer medicine. Its application is still in the experimental phase.
Inocybe patouillardii

Inocybe patouillardii, also known as Inocybe erubescens, commonly known as the deadly fibrecap, brick-red tear mushroom or red-staining inocybe, is a poisonous basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Inocybe and one of the few known to have caused death.

Inocybe patouillardii
is found growing in small groups on leaf litters in association with beech. The fruiting bodies  appear in spring and summer; the bell-shaped caps are generally pale pinkish in colour with red stains, with a reddish-pink stipe and gills.
The cap is hemispherical before flattening out and can reach 8 cm  in diameter. It is variable in colour, initially white though becoming yellow or brownish with age, and stained with pink-white and red marks or lines. The edge of the cap is often irregular with split edges and rough texture. The adnexed gills are reddish-pink. The stem, dark red-pink, is thin with no ring. The flesh is initially yellowish, later dark pink. The colour tends to fade in direct sunlight.

Inocybe erubescens contains muscarine, in much higher doses than Amanita muscaria and has been known to cause death, unlike the latter mushroom.

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